1. Container origin and early development
"Containers" are called "Containers" in South China and Hong Kong and are "Containers" or "Boxes" in English. A container or box that can be loaded. Containers were invented and used by Americans and were first used on the railroad. March 19, 1921 It first appeared in the United States New York Railroad Corporation. The British are not far behind. They started direct container shipping between mainland China and continental Europe eight years later, in 1929. But these are only partial, small-scale use.
Extensive use of containers began in the Vietnam War. At the time, the United States was using containers to transport a large amount of war material, which was very effective, although eventually the United States did not win the war. In 1966, Sealand began using the modified container vessel "FairLand" on the North Atlantic route, opening a new chapter in the history of container intermodal transport.
2. Bulk groceries transport
In the container is not used before large, the transport of goods are loaded into sacks or woven bags, cartons, wooden boxes and so on. First on the pier will be a box or a bag of goods moved into a large wire mesh bag, with the shore boom or boom hanging into the cabin, and then by waiting in the bilge by the loading and unloading workers one by one Move out net pocket, neatly placed in the cabin. This mode of transport lasted for a century in China until the mid-1990s and today we are still visible on the Yangtze, Pearl River and rail transport. The disadvantages of this primitive handling method compared to container shipping are obvious:
Bulk cargo shipments of 5,000 tons of loading and unloading 5-7 days to complete the loading and unloading; and container ships in the port of 3000 loading and unloading at the port no more than 6 hours.
¢ goods not easy to count
Hundreds of pieces, thousands of pieces of cargo need tally clerk inventory, while the container only need to record the box number and quantity.
¢ cargo damage is poor
Cargo damage caused when loading and unloading serious. For example, when workers use a handgrip to load and unload sacks, they easily damage the sacks, resulting in the sacks of foodstuffs and plastic products often being rolled up all over the place. The container is lifted from the box, the whole box down, completely avoiding the cargo damage.
There are also such as labor-intensive, loading and unloading easily affected by weather conditions such as rain and snow and so on.
3. container shipping
Container transport has basically overcome the above problems of bulk groceries, which are widely welcomed by shipping companies and cargo owners. But container shipping is not perfect either:
¢ After each unloading unboxing, the carrier belongs to the box must be recovered.
¢ In the case of unbalanced cargo flow between the port of loading and the port of discharge, on liner routes such as China-North America, China-Europe, liner companies have to recall their empty containers, which greatly increases the cost.
¢ In addition, if the dispatching of containers is improperly allocated, the backlog of containers will also be caused in some places, resulting in a large amount of stockpiling fees.
However, on the whole, container transport benefits outweigh the disadvantages, with obvious advantages. Today, container shipping is widely used around the world and has become an important means of distribution of goods.
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